Deploy and Manage ProxySQL in Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS) Using KubeDB

Overview

KubeDB is the Kubernetes Native Database Management Solution which simplifies and automates routine database tasks such as Provisioning, Monitoring, Upgrading, Patching, Scaling, Volume Expansion, Backup, Recovery, Failure detection, and Repair for various popular databases on private and public clouds. The databases that KubeDB supports are MySQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, Elasticsearch, Redis, PostgreSQL, ProxySQL, Percona XtraDB, Memcached and PgBouncer. You can find the guides to all the supported databases in KubeDB . In this tutorial we will deploy and manage ProxySQL in Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS). We will cover the following steps:

  1. Install KubeDB
  2. Deploy MySQL Group Replication
  3. Deploy ProxySQL Cluster
  4. Read/Write through ProxySQL
  5. Horizontal Scaling of ProxySQL

Install KubeDB

We will follow the steps to install KubeDB.

Get Cluster ID

We need the cluster ID to get the KubeDB License. To get cluster ID we can run the following command:

$ kubectl get ns kube-system -o jsonpath='{.metadata.uid}'
fc435a61-c74b-9243-83a5-f1110ef2462c

Get License

Go to Appscode License Server to get the license.txt file. For this tutorial we will use KubeDB Enterprise Edition.

License Server

Install KubeDB

We will use helm to install KubeDB. Please install helm here if it is not already installed. Now, let’s install KubeDB.

$ helm repo add appscode https://charts.appscode.com/stable/
$ helm repo update

$ helm search repo appscode/kubedb
NAME                              	CHART VERSION	APP VERSION	DESCRIPTION                                       
appscode/kubedb                   	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	KubeDB by AppsCode - Production ready databases...
appscode/kubedb-autoscaler        	v0.14.0      	v0.14.0    	KubeDB Autoscaler by AppsCode - Autoscale KubeD...
appscode/kubedb-catalog           	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	KubeDB Catalog by AppsCode - Catalog for databa...
appscode/kubedb-community         	v0.24.2      	v0.24.2    	KubeDB Community by AppsCode - Community featur...
appscode/kubedb-crds              	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	KubeDB Custom Resource Definitions                
appscode/kubedb-dashboard         	v0.5.0       	v0.5.0     	KubeDB Dashboard by AppsCode                      
appscode/kubedb-enterprise        	v0.11.2      	v0.11.2    	KubeDB Enterprise by AppsCode - Enterprise feat...
appscode/kubedb-grafana-dashboards	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	A Helm chart for kubedb-grafana-dashboards by A...
appscode/kubedb-metrics           	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	KubeDB State Metrics                              
appscode/kubedb-ops-manager       	v0.16.0      	v0.16.2    	KubeDB Ops Manager by AppsCode - Enterprise fea...
appscode/kubedb-opscenter         	v2022.10.18  	v2022.10.18	KubeDB Opscenter by AppsCode                      
appscode/kubedb-provisioner       	v0.29.0      	v0.29.2    	KubeDB Provisioner by AppsCode - Community feat...
appscode/kubedb-schema-manager    	v0.5.0       	v0.5.0     	KubeDB Schema Manager by AppsCode                 
appscode/kubedb-ui                	v2022.06.14  	0.3.22     	A Helm chart for Kubernetes                       
appscode/kubedb-ui-server         	v2021.12.21  	v2021.12.21	A Helm chart for kubedb-ui-server by AppsCode     
appscode/kubedb-webhook-server    	v0.5.0       	v0.5.0     	KubeDB Webhook Server by AppsCode 

# Install KubeDB Enterprise operator chart
$ helm install kubedb appscode/kubedb \
  --version v2022.10.18 \
  --namespace kubedb --create-namespace \
  --set kubedb-provisioner.enabled=true \
  --set kubedb-ops-manager.enabled=true \
  --set kubedb-autoscaler.enabled=true \
  --set kubedb-dashboard.enabled=true \
  --set kubedb-schema-manager.enabled=true \
  --set-file global.license=/path/to/the/license.txt

Let’s verify the installation:

$ watch kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -l "app.kubernetes.io/instance=kubedb"
NAMESPACE   NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-autoscaler-76b4dcff6d-mh4c4       1/1     Running   0          83s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-dashboard-7ccbd4c7dc-24rjk        1/1     Running   0          83s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-ops-manager-74ddbd76df-7h4cm      1/1     Running   0          83s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-provisioner-5d5bb476c9-qhhg8      1/1     Running   0          83s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-schema-manager-54485b55fd-lkctm   1/1     Running   0          83s
kubedb      kubedb-kubedb-webhook-server-6f44466cd5-zngqn   1/1     Running   0          83s

We can list the CRD Groups that have been registered by the operator by running the following command:

$ kubectl get crd -l app.kubernetes.io/name=kubedb
NAME                                              CREATED AT
elasticsearchautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com   2022-11-29T06:53:37Z
elasticsearchdashboards.dashboard.kubedb.com      2022-11-29T06:53:36Z
elasticsearches.kubedb.com                        2022-11-29T06:53:36Z
elasticsearchopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com           2022-11-29T06:53:40Z
elasticsearchversions.catalog.kubedb.com          2022-11-29T06:40:59Z
etcds.kubedb.com                                  2022-11-29T06:53:39Z
etcdversions.catalog.kubedb.com                   2022-11-29T06:41:00Z
mariadbautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com         2022-11-29T06:53:37Z
mariadbdatabases.schema.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:53:41Z
mariadbopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                 2022-11-29T06:54:02Z
mariadbs.kubedb.com                               2022-11-29T06:53:39Z
mariadbversions.catalog.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:41:01Z
memcacheds.kubedb.com                             2022-11-29T06:53:40Z
memcachedversions.catalog.kubedb.com              2022-11-29T06:41:02Z
mongodbautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com         2022-11-29T06:53:37Z
mongodbdatabases.schema.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
mongodbopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                 2022-11-29T06:53:44Z
mongodbs.kubedb.com                               2022-11-29T06:53:39Z
mongodbversions.catalog.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:41:08Z
mysqlautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com           2022-11-29T06:53:37Z
mysqldatabases.schema.kubedb.com                  2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
mysqlopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                   2022-11-29T06:53:58Z
mysqls.kubedb.com                                 2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
mysqlversions.catalog.kubedb.com                  2022-11-29T06:41:09Z
perconaxtradbautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com   2022-11-29T06:53:37Z
perconaxtradbopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com           2022-11-29T06:54:17Z
perconaxtradbs.kubedb.com                         2022-11-29T06:53:47Z
perconaxtradbversions.catalog.kubedb.com          2022-11-29T06:41:10Z
pgbouncers.kubedb.com                             2022-11-29T06:53:47Z
pgbouncerversions.catalog.kubedb.com              2022-11-29T06:41:11Z
postgresautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com        2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
postgresdatabases.schema.kubedb.com               2022-11-29T06:53:40Z
postgreses.kubedb.com                             2022-11-29T06:53:40Z
postgresopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:54:09Z
postgresversions.catalog.kubedb.com               2022-11-29T06:41:12Z
proxysqlopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                2022-11-29T06:54:13Z
proxysqls.kubedb.com                              2022-11-29T06:53:49Z
proxysqlversions.catalog.kubedb.com               2022-11-29T06:41:18Z
publishers.postgres.kubedb.com                    2022-11-29T06:54:24Z
redisautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com           2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
redises.kubedb.com                                2022-11-29T06:53:49Z
redisopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com                   2022-11-29T06:54:05Z
redissentinelautoscalers.autoscaling.kubedb.com   2022-11-29T06:53:38Z
redissentinelopsrequests.ops.kubedb.com           2022-11-29T06:54:21Z
redissentinels.kubedb.com                         2022-11-29T06:53:49Z
redisversions.catalog.kubedb.com                  2022-11-29T06:41:19Z
subscribers.postgres.kubedb.com                   2022-11-29T06:54:27Z

Deploy MySQL Group Replication

Now, we are going to Deploy MySQL Group Replication using KubeDB. First, let’s create a Namespace in which we will deploy the server.

$ kubectl create ns demo
namespace/demo created

Here, is the yaml of the MySQL CRO we are going to use:

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: MySQL
metadata:
  name: mysql-server
  namespace: demo
spec:
  version: "5.7.36"
  replicas: 3
  topology:
    mode: GroupReplication
  storageType: Durable
  storage:
    storageClassName: "gp2"
    accessModes:
      - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 1Gi
  terminationPolicy: WipeOut

Let’s save this yaml configuration into mysql-server.yaml Then create the above MySQL CRO

$ kubectl apply -f mysql-server.yaml 
mysql.kubedb.com/mysql-server created

In this yaml,

  • spec.version field specifies the version of MySQL. Here, we are using MySQL version 5.7.36. You can list the KubeDB supported versions of MySQL by running $ kubectl get mysqlversions command.
  • spec.topology contains the information of clustering configuration for MySQL.
  • spec.storage specifies PVC spec that will be dynamically allocated to store data for this database. This storage spec will be passed to the StatefulSet created by KubeDB operator to run database pods. You can specify any StorageClass available in your cluster with appropriate resource requests.
  • And the spec.terminationPolicy field is Wipeout means that the database will be deleted without restrictions. It can also be “Halt”, “Delete” and “DoNotTerminate”. Learn More about these HERE .

Let’s check if the server is ready to use,

$ kubectl get mysql -n demo mysql-server
NAME           VERSION        STATUS   AGE
mysql-server   5.7.36         Ready    2m

Deploy ProxySQL Cluster

We are going to Deploy ProxySQL cluster using KubeDB. Here, is the yaml of the ProxySQL CRO we are going to use:

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: ProxySQL
metadata:
  name: proxy-server
  namespace: demo
spec:
  version: "2.3.2-debian"
  replicas: 3
  mode: GroupReplication
  backend:
      name: mysql-server
  syncUsers: true
  terminationPolicy: WipeOut

Let’s save this yaml configuration into proxy-server.yaml Then create the above ProxySQL CRO

$ kubectl apply -f proxy-server.yaml 
proxysql.kubedb.com/proxy-server created

In this yaml,

  • spec.version field specifies the version of ProxySQL. Here, we are using ProxySQL 2.3.2-debian. You can list the KubeDB supported versions of ProxySQL by running $ kubectl get proxysqlversions command.
  • spec.backend.name contains the name of MySQL server backend which is mysql-server in this case.
  • spec.syncUsers confirms that the ProxySQL will sync it’s user list with MySQL server or not.
  • And the spec.terminationPolicy field is Wipeout means that the database will be deleted without restrictions. It can also be “Halt”, “Delete” and “DoNotTerminate”.

Let’s check if the server is ready to use,

$ kubectl get proxysql -n demo proxy-server
NAME           VERSION        STATUS   AGE
proxy-server   2.3.2-debian   Ready    5m

Once all of the above things are handled correctly then you will see that the following objects are created:

$ kubectl get all -n demo
NAME                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/mysql-server-0   2/2     Running   0          5m5s
pod/mysql-server-1   2/2     Running   0          3m45s
pod/mysql-server-2   2/2     Running   0          3m41s
pod/proxy-server-0   1/1     Running   0          3m2s
pod/proxy-server-1   1/1     Running   0          2m29s
pod/proxy-server-2   1/1     Running   0          2m28s

NAME                           TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)             AGE
service/mysql-server           ClusterIP   10.96.165.95    <none>        3306/TCP            5m17s
service/mysql-server-pods      ClusterIP   None            <none>        3306/TCP            5m17s
service/mysql-server-standby   ClusterIP   10.96.222.115   <none>        3306/TCP            5m17s
service/proxy-server           ClusterIP   10.96.153.94    <none>        6033/TCP            3m39s
service/proxy-server-pods      ClusterIP   None            <none>        6032/TCP,6033/TCP   3m39s

NAME                            READY   AGE
statefulset.apps/mysql-server   3/3     5m5s
statefulset.apps/proxy-server   3/3     3m2s

NAME                                              TYPE               VERSION   AGE
appbinding.appcatalog.appscode.com/mysql-server   kubedb.com/mysql   5.7.36    5m5s

NAME                               VERSION        STATUS   AGE
proxysql.kubedb.com/proxy-server   2.3.2-debian   Ready    3m39s

NAME                            VERSION   STATUS   AGE
mysql.kubedb.com/mysql-server   5.7.36    Ready    5m17s

We have successfully deployed ProxySQL in Amazon EKS. Now, we can exec into the container to use the database.

Accessing Database Through CLI

To access the database through CLI, we have to get the credentials to access. KubeDB will create Secret and Service for mysql-server that we have deployed. Let’s check them using the following commands,

$ kubectl get secret -n demo -l=app.kubernetes.io/instance=mysql-server
NAME                TYPE                       DATA   AGE
mysql-server-auth   kubernetes.io/basic-auth   2      9m32s


$ kubectl get service -n demo -l=app.kubernetes.io/instance=mysql-server
NAME                   TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
mysql-server           ClusterIP   10.96.165.95    <none>        3306/TCP   9m55s
mysql-server-pods      ClusterIP   None            <none>        3306/TCP   9m55s
mysql-server-standby   ClusterIP   10.96.222.115   <none>        3306/TCP   9m55s

Now, we are going to use mysql-server-auth to get the credentials.

$ kubectl get secrets -n demo mysql-server-auth -o jsonpath='{.data.username}' | base64 -d
root

$ kubectl get secrets -n demo mysql-server-auth -o jsonpath='{.data.password}' | base64 -d
1H*AbfIKMpo1pV_s

Insert Sample Data

Now, let’s exec to the ProxySQL Pod to enter into MySQL server using MySQL user credentials to write and read some sample data to the database,

$ kubectl exec -it proxy-server-0 -n demo -- bash
root@proxy-server-0:/# mysql --user=root --password='1H*AbfIKMpo1pV_s' --host 127.0.0.1 --port=6033
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1398
Server version: 8.0.27 (ProxySQL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE Music;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.005 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> SHOW DATABASES;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| Music              |
| information_schema |
| kubedb_system      |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> CREATE TABLE Music.Artist (id INT(6) UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, Name VARCHAR(50), Song VARCHAR(50));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.021 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> INSERT INTO Music.Artist (Name, Song) VALUES ("John Denver", "Country Roads");
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.009 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> SELECT * FROM Music.Artist;
+----+-------------+---------------+
| id | Name        | Song          |
+----+-------------+---------------+
|  1 | John Denver | Country Roads |
+----+-------------+---------------+
1 row in set (0.009 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> exit
Bye
root@proxy-server-0:/# exit
exit

We’ve successfully inserted some sample data to our database. Click Run & Manage Production-Grade ProxySQL on Kubernetes for more detailed information.

Horizontal Scaling of ProxySQL Cluster

Scale Up Replicas

Here, we are going to scale up the replicas of the ProxySQL cluster replicaset to meet the desired number of replicas after scaling.

Before applying Horizontal Scaling, let’s check the current number of replicas,

$ kubectl get proxysql -n demo proxy-server -o json | jq '.spec.replicas'
3

Let’s connect to a ProxySQL instance and run this command to check the number of replicas,

$ kubectl exec -it proxy-server-0 -n demo -- bash
root@proxy-server-0:/# mysql -uadmin -padmin --host 127.0.0.1 --port=6032
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1545
Server version: 8.0.27 (ProxySQL Admin Module)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]> SELECT * FROM proxysql_servers;
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| hostname                              | port | weight | comment |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| proxy-server-0.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-1.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-2.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
3 rows in set (0.002 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> exit
Bye

Create ProxySQLOpsRequest

In order to scale up the replicas of the replicaset of the database, we have to create a ProxySQLOpsRequest CR with our desired replicas. Let’s create it using this following yaml,

apiVersion: ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
kind: ProxySQLOpsRequest
metadata:
  name: horizontal-scale-up
  namespace: demo
spec:
  type: HorizontalScaling
  proxyRef:
    name: proxy-server
  horizontalScaling:
    member: 5

Here,

  • spec.proxyRef.name specifies that we are performing horizontal scaling operation on proxy-server.
  • spec.type specifies that we are performing HorizontalScaling on our database.
  • spec.horizontalScaling.member specifies the desired replicas after scaling.

Let’s save this yaml configuration into horizontal-scale-up.yaml and apply it,

$ kubectl apply -f horizontal-scale-up.yaml
proxysqlopsrequest.ops.kubedb.com/horizontal-scale-up created

Let’s wait for ProxySQLOpsRequest STATUS to be Successful. Run the following command to watch ProxySQLOpsRequest CR,

$ watch kubectl get proxysqlopsrequest -n demo
NAME                  TYPE                STATUS       AGE
horizontal-scale-up   HorizontalScaling   Successful   68s

We can see from the above output that the ProxySQLOpsRequest has succeeded. Now, we are going to verify the number of replicas,

$ kubectl get proxysql -n demo proxy-server -o json | jq '.spec.replicas'
5

Let’s connect to a ProxySQL instance and run this command to check the number of replicas,

$ kubectl exec -it proxy-server-0 -n demo -- bash
root@proxy-server-0:/# mysql -uadmin -padmin --host 127.0.0.1 --port=6032
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1688
Server version: 8.0.27 (ProxySQL Admin Module)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]> SELECT * FROM proxysql_servers;
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| hostname                              | port | weight | comment |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| proxy-server-0.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-1.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-2.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-3.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-4.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
5 rows in set (0.002 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> exit
Bye
root@proxy-server-0:/# exit
exit

From all the above outputs we can see that the replicas of the cluster is now increased to 5. That means we have successfully scaled up the replicas of the ProxySQL cluster.

Scale Down Replicas

Here, we are going to scale down the replicas of the cluster to meet the desired number of replicas after scaling.

Create ProxySQLOpsRequest

In order to scale down the cluster of the database, we need to create a ProxySQLOpsRequest CR with our desired replicas. Let’s create it using this following yaml,

apiVersion: ops.kubedb.com/v1alpha1
kind: ProxySQLOpsRequest
metadata:
  name: horizontal-scale-down
  namespace: demo
spec:
  type: HorizontalScaling  
  proxyRef:
    name: proxy-server
  horizontalScaling:
    member: 4

Here,

  • spec.proxyRef.name specifies that we are performing horizontal scaling operation on proxy-server.
  • spec.type specifies that we are performing HorizontalScaling on our database.
  • spec.horizontalScaling.member specifies the desired replicas after scaling.

Let’s save this yaml configuration into horizontal-scale-down.yaml and apply it,

$ kubectl apply -f horizontal-scale-down.yaml
proxysqlopsrequest.ops.kubedb.com/horizontal-scale-down created

Let’s wait for ProxySQLOpsRequest STATUS to be Successful. Run the following command to watch ProxySQLOpsRequest CR,

$ watch kubectl get proxysqlopsrequest -n demo
NAME                    TYPE                STATUS       AGE
horizontal-scale-down   HorizontalScaling   Successful   51s

We can see from the above output that the ProxySQLOpsRequest has succeeded. Now, we are going to verify the number of replicas,

$ kubectl get proxysql -n demo proxy-server -o json | jq '.spec.replicas'
4

Let’s connect to a ProxySQL instance and run this command to check the number of replicas,

$ kubectl exec -it proxy-server-0 -n demo -- bash
root@proxy-server-0:/# mysql -uadmin -padmin --host 127.0.0.1 --port=6032
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 1759
Server version: 8.0.27 (ProxySQL Admin Module)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MySQL [(none)]> SELECT * FROM proxysql_servers;
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| hostname                              | port | weight | comment |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
| proxy-server-0.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-1.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-2.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
| proxy-server-3.proxy-server-pods.demo | 6032 | 1      |         |
+---------------------------------------+------+--------+---------+
4 rows in set (0.002 sec)

MySQL [(none)]> exit
Bye
root@proxy-server-0:/# exit
exit

From all the above outputs we can see that the replicas of the cluster is decreased to 3. That means we have successfully scaled down the replicas of the ProxySQL cluster.

We have made an in depth tutorial on ProxySQL Declarative Provisioning, Reconfiguration and Horizontal Scaling using KubeDB. You can have a look into the video below:

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More about ProxySQL in Kubernetes

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